Microsoft Windows 2000 & 2003 Domain to Windows 2008 Upgrade Procedure
& Things to Know in General About Server 2008

Prepared by Ian Matthews September 21, 2008, last updated October 6, 2008

Unlike the Server 2003 upgrade process, I have attended no Windows 2003 to 2008 Microsoft presentations (live or on-line).  This is very unusual for Microsoft but the process is easier than it was from 2000 to 2003.

I have now completed five Sever 2008 installs, some on existing domains, some on new domains and I have learned a few things which will make your life easier.  I primarily create this type of documentation for me to use on future installs but I will do my best to not gloss over what I think are easy steps.

NOTE: This process below is offered with no guarantees and we accept no liability. 
To keep an otherwise complex process simple, it is provided in a terse point form.

Windows Server 2000 / 2003 to 2008 Domain Upgrade Process:


  1. Set internal DNS servers to "scavenge" every 7 days

    • do this as far before the upgrade as possible: 61+ days preferred but not required

    • this is not a critical step.  Don't let it hold you up if haven't got the time

  2. If you are upgrading Window 2000, make sure they are running Service Pack 4 

  3. Make sure the servers being upgraded have 1GB of RAM or better (512MB works but it is damn slow).  Click HERE for Microsoft's complete list of official hardware specifications.

  4. Make sure the rest of your hardware, software, and BIOS can run Server 2008 by downloading the Microsoft Deployment 2008 Toolkit from HERE.

    • I have installed and run this tool on my 32 bit Vista domain connected PC and then had it check my servers which I planned to upgrade to 64 Bit 2008.  It is easy to use, quick, and provides understandable output.

    • On 2003 there was a great little to "\i386\winnt32.exe /checkupgradeonly" which would tell you all about your situation but 2008 has no such tool built in

    • If you are concerned with your software, you can user Microsoft's searchable 2008 Compatibility Catalog .

  5. Note that only "local" (LPR) and "Standard TCP/IP" printer ports work under 2003 and 2008

    • i.e. Lexmark printers using LexLink will have to have their ports recreated

      • this is not true in an upgrade situation (i.e. as opposed to a fresh install) Lexmark ports will likely continue to function even though MS says they won't

  6. Flash update EVERYTHING you can; BIOS, FRU/SDR, RAID Controllers...

  7. If you are upgrading and existing domain. try to first upgrade has server that has the PDC Emulator and Domain Naming Master & RID Master FSMO's.

    • if these roles are on different computers, upgrade them in the order listed PDC, then DNM, then RID

  8. STOP and DISABLE any services you don't need (i.e. the FAX Service, Windows Audio...)

  9. Take a backup of your SYSTEM STATE (and everything else, if you can find the time).

    • I use NT Backup for this because it is quick, easy and NEVER lets me down

    • sadly, NT Backup is been replaced in 2008 with some massively limited garbage called Windows Server Backup

  10. if you are upgrading a print server, and you have 30 minutes, backup your printers using PRINTMIG 3.1 which you can get HERE

    • Printer Migrator 3.1 is product is built in Server 2008 (PRINTBRMUI.EXE)

  11. set your Domain/Forest to the highest level possible via ACTIVE DIRECTORY DOMAINS AND TRUSTS.  Click the pictures below if you are confused.

    • for the DOMAIN LEVEL, right click on the domain and for the FOREST LEVEL, right click on the FOREST.  Click HERE for more details 

    • you must allow time for these changes to replicate to the other servers on your domain/forest.  For most smaller networks this will be less than 10 minutes, if not instantanious.

    cid:image001.png@01C9126B.A1FA5CF0 cid:image003.png@01C9126B.8527ABA0

  12. Make sure you have an internet connection on at least one of your network cards because the install process will check for critical updates during the install.

  13. IF you have customized Active Directory rules (i.e. Modified Group Policy .ADM file to include blocking of more hard drives than A: B: C: D: [which is available by default] then you need to migrate your Active Directory ADM files to the new ADMX format.  This is a complex area which is fully explained HERE and HERE.

    • Only large enterprises will be concerned with this.  Most companies will skip this step.

  14. Reboot and do a common sense check

    • resolve any service errors 

    • check for major event viewer errors relating to key AD components like FRS and DNS 

    • verify their is a pile of hard drive space  (like 1GB+)   



  1. Insert the Windows Server 2008 DVD and go to the \SOURCES folder.  You need to run three Adprep commands (separately but in the order shown) to update the old 2000/2003 schema's to the most current:

    Adprep /forestprep
    Adprep /domainprep
    Adprep /domainprep /gpprep

    • Some of these are fast and some are take some time.  I have not had a failure or error yet so just give it the time it needs to upgrade.

    • If you are planning to upgrade your domain running 32bit Windows to 64bit Windows, you must use 32bit ADPREP (i.e. go get a 32Bit Windows Server 2008 disk, to complete this step.)  If you try to use your 64bit version, not much happens.

    • You can not a "Upgrade Server 2003 32 Bit to Server 2008 64 Bit".  You must do a bare metal install.

    • If you do have ADPREP weirdness or errors, you will find THIS useful. 

    • Under older operating systems, it used to be that you had a week to complete your upgrade to the new Operating System but I have not been able to confirm on deny this is still the case

  2. If you want to the option to have a cool new Server 2008 feature called a READ ONLY DOMAIN CONTROLLER, you must also run the following:

    Adprep /RODCPREP

    • If you don't know what an RODC is, click HERE.

  3. If you choose not to follow step two (which I usually skip) will see the following error message which you can safely ignor during the install process:

    server 2008 not be able to install a read-only domain controller in this domain because "adprep /rodcprep"

  4. Force replication to all DC's via Active Directory Sites & Services and then wait a MINIMUM of 20 minutes before starting the Windows 2008 upgrade.  If you did not wait long enough you will see the following error message:

    server 2008 error - you must first prepare the forest using "adprep /forestprep"

  5. Disable all anti-virus and non-windows applications like event log trackers and 3rd party FTP servers

    • SQL2000/2005 services do NOT need to be shut down

  6. IF YOU ARE UPGRADING: insert the W2008 DVD, let it autoplay, and select INSTALL then Upgrade
    IF YOU ARE INSTALLING ON A FRESH SERVER:  Boot off the W2008 DVD and answer the obvious questions

    • complete the upgrade process which will take less than an hour for most modern server

    • No, you will NOT be asked for a "CD KEY".  You will have to enter the key AFTER the install is complete as part of the "activation" process.  See the end of THIS if you want more information.

    • You may see "This computer has dynamically assigned IP address(es)..." relating to your network configuration.  Personally, I disabled IP v6 along with all unused Network Cards, then set static IP's on the only in-use cards but still had this message.

      Server 2008 - This computer has dynamically assigned IP address(es)

    • You will almost certainly see "a delegation for this DNS server cannot be created because the authoritative parent zone cannot be found...".  I understand this has to do with rDNS (reverse lookups) but my servers have rDNS configured and I still see this error.  This can be safely ignored.

      server 2008 error: a deligation for this DNS server cannot be created

  7. After you have completed your install, you will be presented with the Initial Configuration Wizard.  You should click on and set, ALL five items in section 1 and 2. There are some important things to note:
    Server 2008 Initial Configuration Screen

    • I strongly recommend you approve sending Automatic Feedback

    • I strongly recommend you NOT approve Automatic Updating.  You should choose, "Automatically download but do NOT install". 

      • If you choose the default setting of "Automatically Download and Install Updates", your server WILL reboot itself sometime after 3am when updates are complete.  Not to mention that YOU should be in control of your servers updates, not Microsoft.  I recommend you wait 2 weeks after release before you install server updates; this gives Microsoft enough time to correct or remove "bad" patches. 

    • You should check for and install all Windows Updates immediately

  8. After the upgrade is complete, check event viewer for key errors - ignore Event ID 1931    

  9. Check DNS and AD replication

    • i.e. add a new user on one server and see if it shows up on the other DC's 

  10. Check DEVICE MANAGER (which is now under SERVER MANAGER, DIAGNOSTICS, DEVICE MANAGER) to confirm all of your hardware is functional under Server 2008.

  11. Unlike its predecessors, Server 2008 does not have "Support Tools" (from the DVD) or a "Resource Kit" so you have nothing extra to install.

  12. Unlike its predecessors, you do not have to copy the install files from the DVD to a directory on your server (i.e. the i386 directory) on Server 2008.  Like Vista, the install files are stored in the Windows\WinSXS folder  

  13. You will need to go to System Properties to manually activate Server 08. 

    • Be sure to click CHANGE PRODUCT KEY and enter your real key.

  14. Re-enable Antivirus and another of 3rd party services disabled before the upgrade 

  15. Perform your usual system maintenance routine like deleting temp files and old profiles, emptying the Recycle Bin...

  16. Most sub 500 seat companies will want to enable Automatic Defragmentation.  To do this just click START and type DEFRAG in the search bar and do what is obvious.
    server 2008 defragment drives automatically

  17. Most companies will want to spend the 10 seconds to enable Shadow Copies (if they are not already enabled) by right clicking on any drive and selecting the Shadow Copy tab.
    Server 2008 Shadow Copies

    • I am astounded at how many IT "Professionals" either don't use or don't know about Shadow Copies.  They are SOOOOO easy to setup and use.  They will save you many many hours performing tape restores.  Read THIS if you want more details

    • Server 2008 includes the ability to revert an entire partition to a PREVIOUS VERSION state

  18. Repeat the relevant steps for all DC's

  19. After all DC's are upgraded, increase "Functional Mode" via Active Directory Domains & Trusts to 2008 NATIVE MODE.  See Step 11 in PreWork near the top of this page.

Things to Know About Windows Server 2008:

  • You can/should read about the 2008 Windows Recovery Environment at the bottom of THIS page.

  • If you ran IIS 5 or 6, you are in for a surprise... lots of changes:

    • The old FTP is still available as a ROLE FEATURE under IIS but there is a new FTP for IIS7 from Microsoft you can download HERE and read about HERE.
    • Front Page Server Extensions (FPSE) and Share Point Team Services update are GONE.

      • You will likely want the new WEBDAV which allow you to have FrontPage or Sharepoint Designer (or most other web development tools) connect to and modify your sites via FILE, OPEN SITE. 

      • WebDav 2008 was released after Server 2008 was released so you need to download it separately which you can do HERE .

      • A really simple read on how to configure WebDav is HERE.

      • There is an UNSUPPORTED version of FPSE for 2008 which Microsoft commissioned.  Have I mentioned it is UNSUPPORTED and will NOT exist in the next version of Windows Server.

  • Remote Desktop's "Console Mode" has changed to /ADMIN mode.  Click HERE for details.

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Note: This article was written when Windows Server 2008 was still RC0. Changes might occur later once the product is RTM'd

Upgrade Steps

  1. On you Windows Server 2003 DC, insert the Windows Server 2008 DVD, and then open command prompt and run the following commands, make sure first to browse to the adprep directory inside the Windows 2008 DVD , in my case case, the F drive is the DVD Drive letter, so to browse to the adprep directory I would write the following inside cmd: cd f:\sources\adprerp

  • adprep/ forestprep

  • adprep/ domainprep

  • adprep/ rodcprep (Optional, if you plan to add a Read Only Domain Controller Later)

  1. If the Install Windows page did not auto run before the previous step, double click on your DVD drive where you have inserted the Windows Server 2008 DVD, then Click on Install now

  2. A please wait screen will be followed, then a page to decide what to do, either to go online and get the latest updates for installation or to skip going online by clicking on the Do not get the latest updates for installation option

    I will perform the updates later, so for the purpose of this article, I will click on Do not get the latest updates for installation

  3. Enter the product key, click Next

  4. Accept the license terms and click on Next

  5. What we need to do is to upgrade our server, so click on the Upgrade option

  6. The compatibility report will be displayed telling you what hardware might not function once upgrade is completed , also to check with software vendors to check if their software are compatible with Windows Server 2008. click Next

  7. Upgrade is now in process

  8. The Server will be restarted automatically several times, the Upgrade process will continue with the remaining operations:

    • Expanding Files

    • Installing Features and updates

    • Completing Upgrade

  9. After multiple restarts, the Upgrade process will be completed and you will be able to start using your Windows Server 2008.


In this article, I showed you how to do an in-place upgrade for Windows Server 2003 Domain Controller to Windows Server 2008. The steps are easy and straightforward, just make sure while reading the compatibility report, if any of the hardware/software installed on your Server are compatible with Windows Server 2008.

Back to top

Mr.Mohammed Bin Ali Masood



How to Upgrade to Windows Server 2008 from Windows Server 2003

Topics Mentioned
Operating System(s):

If you haven’t upgraded from Server 2003 to Server 2008 — here’s the how-to you’ve been waiting for. Today I’m going to show you how to prepare for a server upgrade and how to perform it. I’ll also tell you why you need to upgrade your server to 2008; let’s start with that.

Why Upgrade to Windows Server 2008

One of the main reasons why you would want to upgrade all of your Servers on your network from Server 2003 to Server 2008 is the 2008 Functional Level. Well, that’s great but what does that really mean? Once you upgrade all your Servers and get the 2008 Functional Level you will get few nifty bonuses:

  1. The first bonus for upgrading to Server 2008 is Distributed File System Replication. What it means in English is that exchange of information between your Domain Controllers is a lot smoother.
  2. Second bonus is Advanced Encryption Standard support for the Kerberos protocol – logins are a lot more secure.
  3. The third bonus is Last Interactive Logon Information. This is a Group Policy Object that will display information about previous logons while you are trying to login yourself. So basically, you are going to be able to see who has logged on to the machine before you.
  4. And finally, the Fine-Grained Password Policies, where you can specify different password and account lockout policies for different sets of users. I believe this little bonus is quite big for most of the administrators.

The Server 2008 Upgrade Process

The upgrade process is not difficult at all and it doesn’t take a very long time. There are a couple of steps that you need to do before running the CD to update your server — here they are:

1. Before you start upgrading, make sure that your server’s hardware is up to specifications for Server 2008 (these are the recommendations, for minimum requirements):

  • At least 512MB of RAM – preferably a lot more
  • At least a 2GHz processor
  • At least 40GB of Available Hard Disk space
  • DVD-ROM Drive
  • At least Super VGA (800×600) monitor
  • Keyboard, mouse, NIC Card, etc.

2. If you are upgrading a 2003 Domain Controller, you will need to copy a couple of scripts from Server 2008 disc to your Server’s hard disk and then run adprep/FORESTPREP and adprep/DOMAINPREP.

3. Now we are ready to upgrade so we can put the CD in the CD/DVD-ROM and install as normal.

A note to those who may have Server 2000 and want to upgrade to Server 2008:

You cannot, I repeat, cannot upgrade from Server 2000 directly to Server 2008. You need to upgrade it first to Server 2003 and then go through these steps and upgrade to Server 2008. Also, make sure your Domain Functional Level is Windows Server 2003. This is really important as you won’t be able to run the upgrade if Domain Functional Level isn’t at Least Server 2003.

Warning: What You Need to Know Before Upgrading to Server 2008

There are a few things you should be aware of before starting the upgrade process:

  1. 2003 Servers should be patched to at least SP1
  2. Small Business Server 2003 and 2003 R2 upgrades are not supported
  3. You can’t upgrade to Server Core
  4. Exchange Server 2007 will not take an in-place upgrade. This is very important, because if you try it will break things. What you need to do is a Mailbox Migration to do this kind of upgrade with Exchange 2007

Preparing Your Server for Upgrade

1. Login to your Domain Controller on the server you are upgrading. First we are going to prepare the Domain Controller Database for upgrade.

2. Go ahead and insert the Server 2008 CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive.

3. Open My Computer and right-click on CD/DVD-ROM. Then select Explore.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 1

4. Double-click on Sources.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 2

5. Right-click on the adprep folder and select Copy.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 3

6. Now go over to your server’s hard drive and paste the folder on your C:\ drive. In this example, we are going to paste it in the root of C.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 4

7. Next, select Command Prompt on your start menu.

If you do not see Command Prompt, select Run, type in cmd and hit the Enter key.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 5

8. When in Command Prompt, type in cd\ and hit Enter.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 6

9. To verify that the adprep folder is on your hard drive, type in dir and hit Enter.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 7

10. Next, type in cd adprep and hit Enter. This will put you in the adprep folder.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 8

11. Once you are in that folder we are ready to run the two commands. The first command you should type is adprep /forestprep, then hit Enter.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 9

12. Make sure you do not have any Windows Server 2000 machines on your network.

If you do not, type in C and hit Enter.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2008 - 10

13. Once the process is done you are going to receive a quick confirmation as shown below.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 11

14. Next we are going to type in the second command which is adprep /domainprep and hit Enter.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 12

15. Domainprep will now run and once it is done you will receive a confirmation.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 13

16. You can now close the Command Prompt.

Now we are finally ready for the upgrade.

Quick note for administrators with multiple Domain Controllers that need to upgrade to Server 2008:

The steps above need to be performed only once on your network. Once you run forestprep and domainprep on your network, all your Domain Controllers are now ready for the upgrade. All you need to do is wait for the Active Directory database to replicate to all your DCs and you are ready to go.

Upgrading from Server 2003 to Server 2008

1. Make sure your Server 2008 CD is in the CD/DVD-ROM drive. On your machine, go to Windows Explorer and select CD/DVD-ROM. In this example it is the D:\ drive.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 14

2. Double-click on the setup.exe file from inside your Server 2003 machine.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 15

3. When the Install Window opens click the Install Now button.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 16

4. In this window you will have an option to check for the latest updates from Microsoft. If you choose so, please select the first option.

In this example we are going to skip them for now, so we will select the second option.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 17

5. It’s now time to select the Server 2008 version that you want to install.

In this example we are installing the Enterprise (Full Installation) version. Once you make your selection, click Next.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 18

6. Go ahead and check the box to accept the license terms agreement and when ready click next.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 19

7. The upgrade option should now be available for you. When ready select Upgrade Option to continue.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 20

8. You will receive one last warning letting you know to make sure all your applications and 3rd party software can run on windows 2008 as well as of potential issues that you might have.

Make sure to read it and pay close attention to any issues that are listed on the bottom. Once you are ready, click Next.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 21

9. Your Server is now being upgraded.

Upgrading to Server 2008 from Server 2003 - 22

One last thing to keep in mind is that the upgrade process may take a lot longer than the installation as it has to upgrade the Active Directory and other services that are already on your Server.

Now, wasn’t this easy?

More Related Posts

  1. Windows Server 2008: Configuring Distributed File Systems (DFS)
  2. Migrating from Small Business Server 2003 to Exchange 2003
  3. Install Read-Only Domain Controller on Windows Server 2008
  4. GUI Schmooey –- Installing Windows 2008 Server Core
  5. Windows Server 2008: How to Install Active Directory Certificate Services


11 comments and trackbacks for “How to Upgrade to Windows Server 2008 from Windows Server 2003


  1. Posted by Theodore Darko on October 9, 2008, 11:32 am

    This is a fantastic article. Thanks you very Much. You made me understood it very very Much. Trainsignal you guys are superp!!!

  2. Posted by John on October 9, 2008, 5:49 pm

    You say, “You cannot, I repeat, cannot upgrade from Server 2000 directly to Server 2008.

    You need to upgrade it first to Server 2003 and then go through these steps and upgrade to Server 2008.

    Also, make sure your Domain Functional Level is Windows Server 2003. This is really important as you won’t be able to run the upgrade if Domain Functional Level isn’t at Least Server 2003.

    But… in screen shot 12, the ADPREP Warning paraphrased says, it’s OK if you have Windows 2000 SP 4 DC’s on your network.

    Please clarify!!! My primary DC is 2003 as are 3 other remote DC’s but I still have 2 2000 SP4 remote DC’s out there. I also have Exchange 2003 runing on a 2003 DC and a few 2003 member servers running applications. We are a single domain environment.


  3. Posted by Alex on October 13, 2008, 10:40 pm

    Thanks for the interesting article on a topic that I’m thinking about currently. However, you need to do red-eye reduction on your photo as it’s freaking me out ;-)

  4. Posted by Mohamoud on October 14, 2008, 5:10 pm

    Wow! I love your articles. So easy to understand. Keep the good work folk and congratulations for your excellence in your fantastic approach of teaching others who may have some problems in understanding how-to in Windows Server. Your way of teaching is fabulous, it is attractive not scary.

  5. Posted by Roger Opoku-Sah on November 25, 2008, 2:17 am

    I always enjoy trainsignals approach to any course which they tutor being it from CISCO, ORACLE MICROSOFT, COMPTIA and the rest.
    Their instructors are down to earth and knows how to give a very credible presentations all the time at the right time. No wonder you have been rated the best among all the others. Keep up the good works you guys and we willn`t stop buying your products as well.

  6. Posted by Girish Chandrashekar on December 19, 2008, 9:20 am


    It was indeed a very easy steps to upgrade your OS..i was not able to locate any easy steps in google and i found one good easy steps

  7. Posted by Manohar on December 19, 2008, 4:56 pm

    I always enjoy trainsignals approach to any course which they tutor being it from CISCO, ORACLE MICROSOFT, COMPTIA and the rest.
    Their instructors are down to earth and knows how to give a very credible presentations all the time at the right time. No wonder you have been rated the best among all the others. Keep up the good works you guys and we willn`t stop buying your products as well.

  8. Posted by Leonard on February 16, 2009, 12:53 pm

    Gosia Grabowska,

    thanks for the training. Once I read your instructions, I was able to partially upgrade from Server 2003 to 2008. I got a few windows errors for SCSI drivers I have to look up. You got me further then I was a week ago.

  9. Posted by Aijaz Regoo (MCTS) on September 8, 2009, 3:26 pm

    Well let me first thanks to concern person who keep such a nice things here for knowledge sharing.I am really impressed by Microsoft after such along time as they had given me really bad time for GPMC for server 2003 r-2 X-64 .It was really good to work on server 2008 with every thing as it is not like before which i already mention.Friends well i do recommend Server 2008 for ur existing enviroment as it save u from many things .Well every things is managed in GUI and u people will find it Eco-friendly.

    Best of Luck

  10. Posted by Issa on February 24, 2011, 10:55 am

    Good day everyone

    I have a PDC running on Server 2003 and am trying to upgrade it to 2008 but soon after i type in >adprep /forestprep….i get the following message “The image file C:\adprep\adprep.exe is valid, but is for a machine type other than the current machine”.

    how do i resolve this one..

    Thanx a mil.

  11. Posted by Camesha Wilbon on April 5, 2011, 12:15 pm

    This is very excellent…

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Saturday, October 2, 2010

networking Basics

Networking -: A group of computers connected to gather with a via transmission media is called network We do network to share the  Files, Folder Printer and other Devices 
Types of Computer Networks
Networks are classified depending on the geographical area covered by the network
Local Area Network
A Group of computer connected to gather with in a small Geographical Area is called as LAN 
It Connects computers to share data and resources such as printer or faxes
Advantages of LAN:
Improves productivity due to faster work
Provides easy maintenance
New systems can be installed and configured easily
Disadvantages of LAN:
Limited number of systems can only be connected
Cannot cover large area
Network performance degrades as number of users exceeds
Campus Area Network (CAN)
Made up of multiple LAN's within limited area Connects different LAN's in a campus
Metropolitan Area Network
Interconnects networks within a city
Wide Area Network
Covers a wide geographical area which includes multiple computers
or LAN's e.g. Internet

  Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model 
OSI layer model define that how a message is transmitted between two points in the telecommunication network. There are seven layers of the OSI layers model and each layers plays different role in the network communications. The seven layers include the Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. OSI layers model was developed by the ISO for the telecommunication standardizations. The seven layers divide the tasks of the data communication into the subtasks and complete the data transmission cycle. OSI (Open System Interconnectivity) model divides the complex network communication process. In the communication process, the control is passed from top layer to the bottom and from the bottom to the top layers.
Application Layer

Application layers support the applications such as file transfers, email, telnet, SNMP, DNS, Finger, BOOTP, MIME, SMB, network software and NETBIOS based applications. Application layer allow access to the services that support applications. It handles the flow control, error recovery and network access. Gateway works on the Application layer.
Presentation Layer

Presentation layer is responsible for the protocol conversion, data encryption, decryption and data compression. Presentation layer formats the data to be presented over the network. It also encodes and decodes the data. Gateway and redirectors work on the Presentation layer.
Session Layer

Session layer establish, maintain and manages the session between two computers. It is responsible for the name recognition so that only the designated parties can participate in the session. It manages that who can transmit the data at a certain time and for how long. NETBIOS, RPC and Mail Slots work on the session layer. Interactive login and file transfers are the examples of the session layers. It also reports the upper layer errors.
Transport Layer

Transport layer provides the transfer of data between the end systems and the host computers and it also controls the error recovery and the flow control. It provides reliable and sequential packet delivery. TCP, ARP, NETBIOS, SPX, ATP and UDP works at the Transport layer. Gateway, Brouter and cable tester works on the Transport layer. It provides the acknowledgement of the successful transmission and the requests the retransmission if some packets don’t arrive at the destination.
Network Layer

Network layer is responsible for the addressing, routing, determines the shortest possible path for the data packets and translates the logical network address and names to their physical address. The protocols such as IP, ARP, ICMP, IPX, OSI, DDP, IGMP, RIP and OSPF works on the network layer. Brouter, router, frame relay device, ATM switch and cable tester works on the network layer. Routing, forwarding, internetworking, error handling and the congestion control are the main functions of this layer.
Data Link Layer

Data link layer defines the procedures for operating the data links. It detects and corrects the packets transmit errors. It defines the formats of the data on the network. It is responsible for the error free transfer of the frames to the other computers via the physical layer. Data link layer is further divided into the Logical Link Control and the Media Access Control. The devices such as Bridge, Switch, ISDN router, NIC, Intelligent Hub and advanced cable tester works on the Data Link Layer. This layer is also responsible for the error checking, frame control and the synchronization.
Physical Layer

Physical layer defines the physical medium such as network cables, network cards, hardware and the physical aspects/mediums of the data transmission. The devices such as Repeater, Multiplexer, TDR, Amplifier and Hubs work on the Physical layer. It defines the techniques to transfer the data over the physical cables.
                   Network Topologies

Physical Topology means the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation.
Logical Topology refers to the fact that how data actually transfers in a network as opposed to its design.
  Computer network topologies can be categorized in the following categories
• bus
• star
• ring
• mesh
• Tree.
Hybrid networks are the complex networks, which can be built of two or more above mentioned topologies

Bus topology uses a common backbone to connect all the network devices in a network in a linear shape. A single cable functions as the shared communication medium for all the devices attached with this cable with an interface connector. The device, which wants to communicate send the broadcast message to all the devices attached with the shared cable but only the intended recipient actually accepts and process that message.

Ethernet bus topologies are easy to install and don’t require muchcabling and only a main shared cable is used for network communication. 10Base-2 and 10BaseT are two popular types of the Ethernet cables used in the Bus topology. Also, Bus network works with very limited devices. Performance issues are likely to occur in the Bus topology if more than 12-15 computers are added in a Bus Network. Additionally, if the Backbone cable fails then all network becomes useless and no communication fails among all the computers. Unlike in the Star topology in which if one computer is detached from a network then there is not effect on the other computers in a network

Ring Topology
In ring Network, every computer or devices has two adjacent neighbors for communication. In a ring network, all the communication messages travel in the same directory whether clockwise or anti clockwise. Any damage of the cable of any cable or device can result in the breakdown of the whole network. Ring topology now has become almost obsolete.
FDDI, SONET or Token Ring Technology can be used to implement Ring Technology. Ring topologies can be found in office, school or small buildings

Star Topology

In the computer networking world the most commonly used topology in LAN is the star topology. Star topologies can be implemented in home, offices or even in a building. All the computers in the star topologies are connected to central devices like hub, switch or router. The functionality of all these devices is different. I have covered the detail of each networking devices in the separate portion of my website. Computers in a network are usually connected with the hub, switch or router with the Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) or Shielded Twisted Pair Cables.
As compared to the bus topology, a star network requires more devices & cables to complete anetwork. The failure of each node or cable in a star network, won’t take down the entire network
as compared to the Bus topology.
However if the central connecting devices such as hub, switch or router fails due to any reason,then ultimately all the network can come down or collapse.

Tree Topology

Tree topologies are comprised of the multiple star topologies on a bus. Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. Only the hub devices can connect directly with the tree bus and each Hub functions as a root of a tree of the network devices. This bus/star/hybrid combination supports future expandability of the computer networks, much better than a bus or star.

Mesh Topology

Mesh topology work on the concept of routes. In Mesh topology, message sent to the destination can take any possible shortest, easiest route to reach its destination. In the previous topologies star and bus, messages are usually broadcasted to every computer, especially in bus topology. Similarly in the Ring topology message can travel in only one direction i.e clockwise or anticlockwise. Internet employs the Mesh topology and the message finds its route for its destination. Router works in find the routes for the messages and in reaching them to their destinations.The topology in which every devices connects to every other device is called a full Mesh topology unlike in the partial mesh in which every device is indirectly connected to the other devices.

Topologies are the important part of the network design theory. A better network can be built if you have the knowledge of these topologies and if you know the difference between each topology


Media a channel through which  we send and receive   the Data it may be wired or wire less 
Networking Cables are used to connect one network device to other or to connect two or more computers

Characteristics of Cables: Before buying any cable we should Check  
Segment Length – Length of single wire 
Attenuation – Indicates loss of signal 
Bandwidth – Amount of data carried by cable 
Number of Segments – Maximum number of segments in network 
Cost – Copper cables are cheapest, fiber optic cables are expensive

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Types of cables used is computer Network 
Coaxial Cable 
Twisted Pair 
Fiber optic
Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable is the kind of copper cable used by cable tv companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. Coaxial cable is sometimes used by telephone companies from their central office to the telephone poles near users. It is also widely installed for use in business and corporation Ethernet  and other types of  Local Area Networks


Coaxial cable is called "coaxial" because it includes one physical Channel that carries the signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance.
Coaxial cable was invented in 1929 and first used commercially in 1941. AT&T established its first cross-continental coaxial transmission system in 1940. Depending on the carrier technology used and other factors,Twisted Pair copper wire and Optical Fiber are alternatives to coaxial cable.
Types of Coaxial cable
RG 58
RG 8
RG 6
RG 59 

                                 RG 58 

Maximum segment length is 200 meters Interference protection is better than twisted pair cables  BNC-T connector is used to connect this cable  Used in thinnet (10BASE2)
network  Mostly used in  cctv 

Maximum segment length is 500 meters,Interference protection is good compared to any copper cable,BNC-T  connector is used to connect this cable Used in 10BASE5 network  .

Broadband quad-shielded cable that offers an,Provides lower attenuation characteristics,Useful in cable TV, CCTV and satellite dish antenna.
Solid conductor is surrounded by a foam polyethylene dielectric,Useful in security camera, cable TV and home theatre 

Twisted Pair Cables 
Twisted pair cable consists of a pair of insulated wires twisted together. It is a cable type used in telecommunication for very long time. Cable twisting helps to reduce noise pickup from outside sources and crosstalk on multi-pair cables. this cables are 2 types UTP and STP
The most commonly used form of twisted pair is unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
Shielded Twisted Pair(STP) Cable is used to eliminate inductive and capacitive coupling.
Optical fiber cable
 A fiber-optic system is similar to the copper wire system that fiber-optics is replacing. The difference is that fiber-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information.
SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits
BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened.
RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.
MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.


What are your greatest weaknesses?

Disguise strength as a weakness.


Example: I sometimes push my people too hard. I like to work with a sense of urgency and everyone is not always on the same wavelength.


Drawback: This strategy is better than admitting a flaw, but it's so widely used; it is transparent to any experienced interviewer.


BEST ANSWER: (and another reason it's so important to get a thorough description of your interviewer's needs before you answer questions): Assure the interviewer that you can think of nothing that would stand in the way of your performing in this position with excellence. Then, quickly review you strongest qualifications.


Example: Nobody's perfect, but based on what you've told me about this position; I believe I’d make an outstanding match. I know that when I hire people, I look for two things most of all. Do they have the qualifications to do the job well, and the motivation to do it well? Everything in my background shows I have both the qualifications and a strong desire to achieve excellence in whatever I take on. So I can say in all honesty that I see nothing that would cause you even a small concern about my ability or my strong desire to perform this job with excellence.


Alternate strategy (if you don't yet know enough about the position to talk about such a perfect fit):


Instead of confessing a weakness, describe what you like most and like least, making sure that what you like most matches up with the most important qualification for success in the position, and what you like least is not essential.


Example: Let's say you're applying for a teaching position. If given a choice, I like to spend as much time as possible in front of my prospects selling, as opposed to shuffling paperwork back at the office. Of course, I long ago learned the importance of filing paperwork properly, and I do it conscientiously. But what I really love to do is selling (if your interviewer was a sales manager, this should be music to his ears.)


Tell me about something you did or failed to do that you now feel a little ashamed of?

As with faults and weaknesses, never confess regret. But don’t seem as if you are stonewalling either.


Best strategy: Say you harbor no regrets, then add a principle or habit you practice regularly for healthy human relations.



Example: Pause for reflection, as if the question never occurred to you. Then say to HR, You know, I really can’t think of anything. (Pause again, and then add): “I would add that as a general management principle, I have found that the best way to avoid regrets is to avoid causing them in the first place. I practice one habit that helps me a great deal in this regard. At the end of each day, I mentally review the day’s events and conversations to take a second look at the people and developments I’m involved with and do a double check of what they are likely to be feeling. Sometimes ll see things that do need more follow-up, whether a pat on the back, or maybe a five minute chat in someone’s office to make sure were clear on things whatever.


I also like to make each person feel like a member of an elite team, like the Boston Celtics or LA Lakers in their prime. I have found that if you let each team member know you expect excellence in their performance if you work hard to set an example yourself and if you let people know you appreciate and respect their feelings, you wind up with a highly motivated group, a team that having fun at work because they are striving for excellence rather than brooding over slights or regrets.


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Network essentials


Network Physical connection by two more computers via transmission media to access the data and resources.


Networking : - Logically enabling the physical connection


Communication rules: -


Ø      Sender

Ø      Receiver

Ø      Messages

Ø      Media

Ø      Protocol




Physical Components: -                                                                       


Ø      Computer

Ø      NIC

Ø      HUB/Switcher

Ø      CABLE



Logic Components: -


Ø     IP Address.

Ø     Subnet Mark.

Ø     DNS

Ø     Gateway.

Ø     Protocol Assignments.

























ð     De-conlralied -> Centroalized

ð     Individula -> “ “ “ Data

ð     Less Suar -> More Scure

o       Client/Scver






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